The Mediator Role of Ego-Strength in the Relationship between Student Self-Esteem and Parental Perfectionism
Associate Professor, Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Education, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Background: Perfectionism as a personality trait is associated with self-esteem. There are many factors that can affect the relationship between perfectionism and self-esteem. The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating effect of ego strength on the relationship between perfectionism and self-esteem.

Methods: The study participants consisted of 200 students. All participants were asked to complete the Perfectionism Scale, Self-Esteem Test, and Ego-Strength Scale (ESS). The obtained data were analyzed using correlation and path analysis in SPSS and LISREL.

Results: The results showed that positive perfectionism had a significant positive relationship with self-esteem and negative perfectionism had a significant negative relationship with self-esteem. In addition, the results of the research showed that ego strength mediated between perfectionism and self-esteem.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this research, it can be concluded that the relationship between perfectionism and self-esteem is not linear and one-dimensional, and ego strength can play a mediator role in the relationship between them.


  • Ego strength
  • Perfectionism
  • Self-esteem

Full Text


Besharat, M. A. (2011). Development and validation of Tehran Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale. Procedia Soc Behav Sci, 30, 79-83.

Besharat, M. A., Asadi, M. M., & Gholamali Lavasani, M. A. S. O. (2017). The mediating role of ego strength in the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and depressive symptoms. Developmental Psychology (Journal of Iranian Psychologists), 13(51), 229-243.

Besharat, M. (2017). Development and validation of ego strength scale: A preliminary study. Psychological Science, 15(60), 445-467.

Besser, A., Flett, G., Hewitt, P., & Guez, J. (2008). Perfectionism, and cognitions, affect, self-esteem, and physiological reactions in a performance situation. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 26, 206-228.

Biabangard, E. (2011). Methods of increasing self-esteem in children and adolescencts. Tehran, Iran: Publication of Parents and Teachers.

Bulanda, R., & Majumdar, D. (2008). Perceived parentī€­child relations and adolescent self-esteem. J Child Fam Stud, 18(2), 203-212.

Dunkley, D. M., Zuroff, D. C., & Blankstein, K. R. (2003). Self-critical perfectionism and daily affect: dispositional and situational influences on stress and coping. J Pers.Soc.Psychol., 84(1), 234-252. Retrieved from PM:12518982

Fayyaz R, Sarmast Z, Ameri F, & Besharat MA. (2016). Psychology moderating effect of introversion and extroversion onthe relationship between parenting styles and ego strength. Life Science, 6(3), L-44-L-50.

Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2002). Perfectionism and maladjustment: An overview of theoretical, definitional, and treatment issues. In Perfectionism: Theory, research, and treatment (pp. 5-31). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Flett, G. L., & Hewitt, P. L. (2015). Measures of Perfectionism. In G.J. Boyle, D. H. Saklofske, & G. Matthews (Eds.), Measures of Personality and Social Psychological Constructs (pp. 595-618). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Hamilton, T. K., & Schweitzer, R. D. (2000). The cost of being perfect: perfectionism and suicide ideation in university students. Aust.N.Z.J Psychiatry., 34(5), 829-835. doi:10.1080/j.1440-1614.2000.00801.x [doi]. Retrieved from PM:11037370

Jersild, A. T. (1951). Self-understanding in childhood and adolescence. American Psychologist, 6(4), 122-126.

Khanbani, M. (2006). Perfectionism and self-esteem among high-school students of the first grade, gifted and normal [MSc Thesis]. Tehran, Iran: Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran.

Mackie, D. M., & Smith, E. R. (2016). From prejudice to intergroup emotions: Differentiated reactions to social groups. London, UK: Psychology Press.

Missildine, W. H. (1963). Your Inner child of the past. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster.

Pishva, N., & Besharat, M. A. (2011). Relationship attachment styles with positive and negative perfectionism. Procedia Soc Behav Sci, 30, 402-406.

Pourhosein, R. (2010). Estimation of the validity of Self-esteem test: Short form 10 questions. Final report of the research project. Tehran, Iran: University of Tehran.

Pourhosein, R, Dehghani, F., & Darabi, F. (2018). Determination of the relationship between ego-strength and body image with the mental health of adolescent high school female students. Journal of Clinical Review & Case Reports, 4(1), 1-8.

Saadat, S. H., Shahyad, S., Pakdaman, S., & Shokri, O. (2017). Prediction of Social Comparison Based on Perfectionism, Self-Concept Clarity, and Self-Esteem. Iran.Red.Crescent.Med.J, 19(4), e43648.

Sayadpour, Z. (2007). Relationship between Self-esteem and attachment style. Developmental Psychology (Journal Of Iranian Psychologists), 3(12), 311-321. doi:Article. Retrieved from

Singh, N. & Anand, A. (2015). Ego-strength and self-concept among adolescents: a study on gender differences. Int. J. Indian Psychol., 3, 46-54.

Slade, P. D., & Owens, R. G. (1998). A dual process model of perfectionism based on reinforcement theory. Behav Modif., 22(3), 372-390. doi:10.1177/01454455980223010 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:9722475

Tolooee Qarachanaq A, Pormouzeh A, & Mirza Loo M. (2015). Investigation of Relationship between Ego's Strength, Self-Control, and Self- Esteem in Students of Tehran's Shahed University. Res.J.Recent Sci., 4(11), 115-119.

Weiner, I. B., Tennen, H. A., & Suls, J. M. (2012). Handbook of Psychology, Personality and Social Psychology. Handbook of Psychology. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.