From Biomedical to Psychosomatic Reasoning: A Theoretical Framework

Assistant Professor, Department of Philosophy of Science, Institute for Humanities and Cultural Studies, Tehran, Iran

Head of Danesh-e Tandorosti Institute, Isfahan, Iran AND Faculty Member, Energy Medicine University, California, USA


Despite a general acceptance of the biopsychosocial model, medical education and patient care are still largely biomedical in focus, and physicians have many deficiencies in biopsychosocial formulations and care. Education in medical schools puts more emphasis on providing biomedical education (BM) than biopsychosocial education (BPS); the initial knowledge formed in medical students is mainly with a biomedical approach. Therefore, it seems that psychosocial aspects play a minor role at this level and PSM knowledge will lag behind BM knowledge. However, it seems that the integration of biomedical and psychosocial-knowledge is crucial for a successful and efficient patient encounter. In this paper, based on the theory of medical expertise development, the steps through which biomedical reasoning transforms to psychosomatic reasoning will be discussed.


  • Biopsychosocial model
  • Biomedical model
  • Biomedical reasoning
  • Psychosomatic reasoning
  • Medical education

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