Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy on Hardiness, Procrastination, and Frustration Tolerance in Students of Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Iran

Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, School of Humanities, Ahvaz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz, Iran

MSc, Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Humanities, Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Ahvaz, Iran


Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) on procrastination, hardiness, and frustration tolerance in students of Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, Iran.

Methods: The current semi-experimental study was conducted through a pretest-posttest design with follow-up and control group. The statistical population of this study consisted of all students of Islamic Azad University, Ahvaz Branch, from among which 32 individuals were selected. The participants were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups, each containing 16 individuals. The experimental group took part in 8 sessions of ACT; each session lasted 90 minutes. After completing the sessions, both groups responded to Tuckman's Impact Questionnaire, Kobasa’s Hardiness Questionnaire,‎ and the Frustration Discomfort Scale. The multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) was used to analyze the collected data.

Results: A statistically significant reductions in procrastination and increase in frustration tolerance and hardiness was observed (P < 0.001) in the experimental group after ACT. These changes were also preserved in the follow-up phase.

Conclusion: Therefore, based on the results, ACT is recommended for reducing procrastination and increasing frustration tolerance and hardiness.


  • Acceptance and commitment therapy
  • Procrastination
  • Hardiness
  • Frustration tolerance

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ijbmc.v5i4.140