Relationship of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Big Five Personality Factors with Impulsivity in Middle-Aged Women

MA, Department of Psychology, Tehran North Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran


Abstract

Background: Mental health in the middle-age period is vulnerable due to the many biological, physical, psychological, and social changes, and the consequences of these changes. Women experience more changes and complications associated with aging in this phase of life than men. The aim of the present study was to determine the relationship of early maladaptive schemas and Big Five personality factors with impulsivity.

Methods: The present study was a correlational research. The study population consisted of all middle-aged women in regions 1 and 2 of Tehran, Iran. From among them, 150 were selected through randomized cluster sampling. Subjects completed the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2)‎‎, Dickman's Impulsivity Inventory (DII), and the‎ Young Schema Questionnaire-Revised (YSQ) before and after the intervention. To analyze the data, descriptive statistics (mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (the Pearson correlation coefficient and multiple regression) were used in SPSS software.

Results: Correlation analysis indicated that all domains of early maladaptive schema had a significant positive correlation with impulsivity (P < 0.01). Impairment limitations (Beta = 0.45; t = 33.8), self-regulation and impaired function (Beta = 0.42; t = 27.44), and disconnection ‎and rejection (Beta = 41.0; t = 25.83) were able to predict 78% of impulse variance (R2 = 0.78; F = 7122.63; P < 0.0001).

Conclusion: The results showed that early maladaptive schemas and Big Five personality factors were significant predictors of impulsivity. Impaired limits, self-regulation and impaired performance, and disconnection ‎and rejection were the strongest predictors of impulsivity.

Keywords


  • Early maladaptive schemas
  • Big Five personality
  • Impulsivity
  • Middle-aged women

Full Text


References


Ayers, B., & Hunter, M. S. (2013). Health-related quality of life of women with menopausal hot flushes and night sweats. Climacteric., 16(2), 235-239. doi:10.3109/13697137.2012.688078 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:22809134

Bari, A., & Robbins, T. W. (2013). Inhibition and impulsivity: Behavioral and neural basis of response control. Prog.Neurobiol., 108, 44-79. doi:S0301-0082(13)00054-3 [pii];10.1016/j.pneurobio.2013.06.005 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23856628

Chakhssi, F., Bernstein, D., & de Ruiter, C. (2014). Early maladaptive schemas in relation to facets of psychopathy and institutional violence in offenders with personality disorders. Leg. Criminol. Psychol., 19(2), 356-372.

Estevez, A., Ozerinjauregi, N., Herrero-Fernandez, D., & Jauregui, P. (2019). the mediator role of early maladaptive schemas between childhood sexual abuse and impulsive symptoms in female survivors of CSA. J Interpers.Violence., 34(4), 763-784. doi:0886260516645815 [pii];10.1177/0886260516645815 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:27112507

Geeske Peeters, G. M., Rainbird, S., Lorimer, M., Dobson, A. J., Mishra, G. D., & Graves, S. E. (2017). Improvements in physical function and pain sustained for up to 10 years after knee or hip arthroplasty irrespective of mental health status before surgery. Acta Orthop., 88(2), 158-165. doi:10.1080/17453674.2016.1250059 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:27781564

Gurven, M., von Rueden, C., Massenkoff, M., Kaplan, H., & Lero, V. M. (2013). How universal is the Big Five? Testing the five-factor model of personality variation among forager-farmers in the Bolivian Amazon. J Pers.Soc.Psychol., 104(2), 354-370. doi:2012-33782-001 [pii];10.1037/a0030841 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23245291

Josefsson, K., Jokela, M., Cloninger, C. R., Hintsanen, M., Salo, J., Hintsa, T. et al. (2013). Maturity and change in personality: developmental trends of temperament and character in adulthood. Dev Psychopathol., 25(3), 713-727. doi:S0954579413000126 [pii];10.1017/S0954579413000126 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23880387

Lee, S. J., Choi, Y. H., Rim, H. D., Won, S. H., & Lee, D. W. (2015). Reliability and validity of the Korean Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form-3 in Medical Students. Psychiatry Investig., 12(3), 295-304. doi:10.4306/pi.2015.12.3.295 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:26207121

Leppanen, V., Vuorenmaa, E., Lindeman, S., Tuulari, J., & Hakko, H. (2016). Association of parasuicidal behaviour to early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in patients with BPD: The Oulu BPD study. Personal.Ment.Health, 10(1), 58-71. doi:10.1002/pmh.1304 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:26333517

Leutner, F., Ahmetoglu, G., Akhtar, R., & Chamorro-Premuzic, T. (2014). The relationship between the entrepreneurial personality and the Big Five personality traits. Pers. Individ. Dif., 63, 58-63.

Shorey, R. C., Stuart, G. L., & Anderson, S. (2013). Early maladaptive schemas among young adult male substance abusers: A comparison with a non-clinical group. J Subst.Abuse Treat., 44(5), 522-527. doi:S0740-5472(12)00449-7 [pii];10.1016/j.jsat.2012.12.001 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23312769

Soto, C. J., & John, O. P. (2017). The next Big Five Inventory (BFI-2): Developing and assessing a hierarchical model with 15 facets to enhance bandwidth, fidelity, and predictive power. J Pers.Soc.Psychol., 113(1), 117-143. doi:2016-17156-001 [pii];10.1037/pspp0000096 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:27055049

Stahl, C., Voss, A., Schmitz, F., Nuszbaum, M., Tuscher, O., Lieb, K. et al. (2014). Behavioral components of impulsivity. J Exp.Psychol.Gen., 143(2), 850-886. doi:2013-29647-001 [pii];10.1037/a0033981 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23957282

Van Dyck, D., Teychenne, M., McNaughton, S. A., De, Bourdeaudhuij I, & Salmon, J. (2015). Relationship of the perceived social and physical environment with mental health-related quality of life in middle-aged and older adults: Mediating effects of physical activity. PLoS.One., 10(3), e0120475. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0120475 [doi];PONE-D-14-32175 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:25799269

Waller, G., Meyer, C., & Ohanian, V. (2001). Psychometric properties of the long and short versions of the Young Schema Questionnaire: Core beliefs among bulimic and comparison women. Cognit. Ther. Res., 25(2), 137-147.

Zhu, H., Luo, X., Cai, T., He, J., Lu, Y., & Wu, S. (2016). Life event stress and binge eating among adolescents: The roles of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity. Stress Health, 32(4), 395-401. doi:10.1002/smi.2634 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:25688978

Zuckerman, M., & Glicksohn, J. (2016). Hans Eysenck's personality model and the constructs of sensation seeking and impulsivity. Pers. Individ. Dif., 103, 48-52.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22122/ijbmc.v6i4.188