Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised in Iran

Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Assistant Professor, Department of Psychology, School of Education and Psychology, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran

Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

Department of Psychology, School of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Background: The comparison of physical appearance may play an important role in many body-related variables. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) is a recently developed instrument for measurement of physical appearance comparisons in a number of contexts. The aim of the present study was to validate the Persian version of this scale.

Methods: The scale was administered following a standard back-translation procedure. The sample consisted of 206 female university students. The Body Appreciation Scale (BAS), Life Orientation Test (LOT), Interest in Aesthetic Rhinoplasty Scale (IARS), and Body Mass Index (BMI) were used for assessment of concurrent validity. The factor structure of the scale was investigated using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Analysis of variance (ANOVA), bivariate correlation coefficients, and one-sample t-test were used in SPSS software for statistical analysis. Effect sizes were also computed in comparisons between the Iranian sample and the American sample on which the scale was developed. Moreover, the reliability of the scale was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha.

Results: All items had adequate psychometric qualities in item analysis. The instrument was internally consistent (alpha = 0.97) and one-dimensional. It was positively correlated with BMI and interest in aesthetic rhinoplasty. Furthermore, PACS-R was inversely associated with optimism and body appreciation. Cross-cultural comparisons suggested that Iranian female participants had lower scores in physical appearance comparison.

Conclusion: The Persian version of the PACS-R is a reliable and valid psychometric scale and may be used in clinical and research settings.


  • Psychometrics
  • Validity and reliability
  • Body image
  • Test adaptation
  • Physical appearance

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