Psychocultural Factors Affecting HIV/AIDS Infection among Iranian Women: A Grounded Theory
Keywords:Cultural factors, Social factors, HIV/AIDS, Women
Background: Previous studies have shown that adversity, sexual violence, prostitution, and addiction can increase the risk of HIV/AIDS infection. Providing an overview of the risk factors of this disease is significantly important in preventing its spread. It was therefore decided to focus this research on the determination of cultural and social factors that increase the risk of HIV/AIDS among women in Tehran, Iran.
Methods: The present study was a qualitative research. The study group consisted of 13 women with HIV/AIDS infection who are members of the positive HIV club of the Iranian Welfare Organization, their sexual partners, and 10 experts and specialists of HIV/AIDS in Tehran. The qualitative approaches of interviewing the infected women and holding group discussion with experts and politicians were applied for data gathering. The analysis of data was carried out using grounded theory based on basic concepts, organizational concepts, comprehensive concepts, strategies, and consequences.
Results: As a result of data analysis, 73 basic concepts, 61 organizational concepts, and 151 comprehensive concepts (73 social and 78 cultural factors) were obtained.
Conclusion: The most important factors are lack of information and sexual awareness within the mentioned group, the educational level of parents and children, unprotected sexual intercourse among polygamous partners, prostitution, homosexuality, divorce, cultural shift in womenâ€™s role in the family, discrimination, poverty, marginalization, menâ€™s dominance in the intercourse, and unprotected sexual intercourse. Increasing womenâ€™s awareness through training in order to affect their sexual behavior is suggested as a solution in this regard. Moreover, welfare and wellbeing must be improved in the society so that low-cost health care is available and accessible to all members.
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