Evaluation of Narrative Therapy in the Decrease of Female Studentsâ€™ Identity Crisis in the Department of Sciences and Counseling of Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, Iran
Keywords:Narrative Therapy, Identity, Identity Processing Styles, Identity Crisis
Background: The present research aimed to investigate the effect of narrative therapy on the decreasing of female studentsâ€™ identity crisis in the Faculty of Educational Sciences and Counseling of Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, Iran.
Methods: The present study was a quasi-experiment with pre-test, post-test, and control group design. The statistical population included all the female students of the Faculty of Educational Sciences and Counseling of Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, from among which, a sample of 36 students was selected based on the Berzonskyâ€™s Identity Styles Inventory (ISI-6G). The subjects were divided into experimental and control groups. The content of the sessions was based on the theory of narrative therapy which was designed by the researcher and administered for 8 sessions of 60 minutes.
Results: The obtained data were analyzed using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). The results indicated that narrative therapy is effective in the decreasing of diffuse-avoidant identity style and increasing of informational style at a 0.05 level of significance.
Conclusion: With regard to the results of the present research, it can be concluded that this method can be of great importance in the treatment of depressed and anxious individuals. Therefore, this treatment, with regard to its flexibility and uniqueness, the techniques that individuals use in structuring their own stories, and the confrontation of the clients with themselves and not their thoughts, may be of greater importance in the future.
Adams, K. (1999). Writing as therapy. Couns Hum Dev, 31(5), 1-16.
Ahadi, H., & Mohseni, N. (2002). Developmental psychology: Fundamental concepts in the psychology of adolescents and young individuals. Tehran, Iran: pardis.
Ali Akbari Dehkordi, M., Khodaei, A., Shokri, O., Daneshvarpoor, Z. (2013). cross group invariance of factorial structure of the identity style inventory among Iranian adolescents. Developmental Pscychology, 9(3), 237-248.
Arendt, H. (1977). The life of the mind. New York, NY: Harcourt Brace.
Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the Life-span: a process perspective on identity formation. In G.J. Neimeyer & R. A. Neimeyer (Eds.), Advances in personal construct psychology (pp. 155-186). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Berzonsky, M. D. (1993). A constructivist view of identity development: People as post-positivist selftheorists. In J. Kroger (Ed.), Discussion on ego identity. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Hillsdale, NJ.
Cote, J. (2000). Arrested adulthood: The changing nature of maturity and identity. New York, NY: University Press.
Cotton, K. (1994). Developing employability skills. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory.(ERIC Document No. ED 370246).
Crane, C. (2009). Pioneers of Psychology. Trans. Fadaei, F. Tehran, Iran: Etealat publication.
Erikson, E.H. (1968) Identity: youth and crisis (Austen Riggs monograph). New York, NY. Norton & Company, Inc.
Esmaeili Nasab, M., Eskandrai, H., & Borjali, A. (2005). Comparison of life narrative of depressed and anxious people with normal subjects. Advances In Cognitive Science, 7(3), 58-64.
Gharah Gozlou, M. (2009). Investigation and comparison of the narratives of female adolescents in the age range of 15 to 20 in relation to their identity styles [MSc Thesis]. Tehran, Iran: Allameh Tabataba'i University.
Ghasemi, F. (2004). The hierarchy and components of identity: theoretical foundations of identity and identity crisis. Tehran, Iran: Jahad Daneshgahi.
Hacker, D. J. (1994). Existential view of adolescence. Journal of Early Adolescence, 14, 300-327. doi:10.1177/0272431694014003001.
Hinatsu, M. (2002). A narrative approach to adolescent depression. Manitoba, Canada: University of Manitoba.
Kroger, J. (2003). What Transits in an Identity Status Transition? Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 3(3), 197-220. http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/S1532706XID0303_02.
Javad Zadeh Shahshahani, A. (2004). Critical thinking and religion as two main factors in creating confrontational identity with social and psychological crisis. Shiraz, Iran: Department of law and Political Sciences, University of Shiraz.
McAdams, D. P. (1995). The life story interview. Accesesd: https://www.sesp.northwestern.edu/docs/Interviewrevised95.pdf
McAdams, D. P. (2001). The psychology of life stories. Review of General Psychology, 5(2), 100-122.
McAdams, D. P., Robins, R. W., & Pervin, L. A. 2010). Personal narratives and the life story. In O.P. John (Ed.), Handbook of personality: theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 241-261). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.
Marcia, J. E. (2002). Identity and psychosocial development in adulthood. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 2(1), 7-28.
McLean, K. C., & Pratt, M. W. (2006). Life's little (and big) lessons: identity statuses and meaning-making in the turning point narratives of emerging adults. Dev.Psychol., 42(4), 714-722. doi:2006-08097-010 [pii];10.1037/0012-16126.96.36.1994 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:16802903
McLean, K. C., & Pasupathi, M. D. (2010). Narrative development in adolescence. New York, NY: Springer.
Movahhedi Nasab, M. (2010). Effectiveness of narrative therapy in the decrease of identity crisis of students in Allameh Tabataba'i University [MSc Thesis]. Tehran, Iran: Allameh Tabataba'i University.
Najafi, M. (2004). Ambiguous identity: family and adolescent's identity establishment. Roshd-e Moallem, 187, 28-30.
Nelson, L. J. (2003). Rites of passage in emerging adulthood: Perspectives of young Mormons. In E. L. Grigorenko (Ed.). New directions in child and adolescent development (pp. 33-49). New York, NY: Wiley.
Pai, L. (2001). Crises and sequences in political development. Trans. Khajeh Sarvi, Gh. Tehran, Iran: Institute for Strategic Studies.
Payne, B.D., & Manning, B.H. (1992). Basal Reader Instruction: Effects of comprehension monitoring training on reading comprehension, strategy use and attitude. Reading Research and Instruction, 32 (1), 29-38.
Prochaska, J., & Norcross, J. (2004). Theories of psychotherapy. Trans. Seyyed Mohammadi, Y. Tehran, Iran: Roshd Publication.
Reisi, F. (1997). An investigation into the effectiveness of group conseling in identity crisis of female adolescents studying in the high schools located in Isfahan [MSc Thesis]. Isfahan, Iran: University of Isfahan.
Ricoeur, P. (1974). The conflict of interpretations. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press.
Ricoeur, P., Thompson, J. B. (1981). Hermeneutics and the human sciences. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.
Ruiz, G. M., Fofonoff, P. F., Hines, A. H., VonHolle, A. F., McCann, L. D., Carlton, J. T. (1997). Analysis of nonindigenous species invasions of the Chesapeake Bay (USA). Part I. Draft Report. Washington, DC: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service.
Santrock, J. W. (2001). Adolescence (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Schultz, L. E. (2007). The influence of maternal loss on young women's experience of identity development in emerging adulthood. Death.Stud, 31(1), 17-43. doi:10.1080/07481180600925401 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:17131560
Schwartz, S. J., Mullis, R. L., Waterman, A. S., & Dunham, R. M. (2000). Ego Identity Status, Identity Style, and Personal Expressiveness: An Empirical Investigation of Three Convergent Constructs. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15(4), 504-521. Retrieved from http://jar.sagepub.com/content/15/4/504.abstract
Shfrz, B. (2004) Principles of sociology of youth. pioneers of psychology. Trans. Rasekh, K. Tehran, Iran: Ney. p. 63.
Shokri, O., Tajik Esmaeili, A. A., Daneshpour, Z., Ghanaei, Z., & Dastjerdi, R. (2007). Individual difference in identity styles and psychological well-being: the role of commitment. Advances in Cognitive Science, 9(2), 33-46.
Singer, J. A. (2004). Narrative identity and meaning making across the adult lifespan: an introduction. J Pers., 72(3), 437-459. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00268.x [doi];JOPY268 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:15102034
Soenens, B., Berzonsky, M. D., Vansteenkiste, M., Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2005). Identity styles and causality orientations: in search of the motivational underpinnings of the identity exploration process. European Journal of Personality, 19(5), 427-442. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/per.551. Retrieved from John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.