Reducing Sensation Seeking and Enhancing Inhibition: The Impact of Emotion-Focused Schema Therapy on Children with Attention Deficits

Reducing sensation seeking and enhancing inhibition

Emotion-focused schema therapy Sensation seeking Behavioral inhibition system Attention deficits


  • Aysan Khabaznoori
    Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, Iran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • Iman Sabet Azad Department of Psychology, Islamic Azad University, Roudehen Branch, Roudehen, Iran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Vol 11, No 3 (2024)
Quantitative Study(ies)
June 10, 2024
June 19, 2024


Background: The relationship and connection between sensation seeking, attention deficits, and their underlying psychological frameworks has been a subject of extensive research within the field of psychology. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of Emotion-Focused Schema Therapy (EFST) on reducing sensation seeking behaviors and enhancing the behavioral inhibition system (BIS) among children diagnosed with attention deficits.

Methods: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) design was employed, involving 30 participants aged between 8 and 12 years diagnosed with attention deficit, randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. The intervention group received 10 sessions of EFST. Data were collected at baseline, immediately post-intervention, and at a three-month follow-up, utilizing standard psychometric tools to measure sensation seeking and behavioral inhibition. The data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measurements, followed by Bonferroni post-hoc tests, utilizing SPSS software.

Results: The ANOVA revealed significant group × time interaction effects for both sensation seeking [F(2,56) = 17.33, P < 0.001, η² = 0.38] and behavioral inhibition [F(2,56) = 15.88, P < 0.001, η² = 0.35], indicating significant improvements in the intervention group over time compared to the control group. Bonferroni post-hoc testing supported these findings, showing marked improvements in sensation seeking and behavioral inhibition in the intervention group from baseline to post-intervention and follow-up, with mean differences of 5.93 and -5.06, respectively (both P-values < 0.001)..

Conclusion: EFST effectively reduced sensation seeking behaviors and enhanced the BIS in children with attention deficits. These findings underscore the potential of EFST as a therapeutic approach for managing attention deficit-related behaviors, suggesting promising implications for clinical practices.