The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training on Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder


  • Shirin Haji-Adineh MSc, Department of General Psychology, Kish Branch, Islamic Azad University, Kish, Iran
  • Solmaz Rafeian PhD, Department of Health Psychology, South Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • Mohammad Vahidi PhD Student, Counseling, Farhangian University, Shahid Rajaei Fars Campus, Shiraz, Iran



Mindfulness, Self-efficacy, Self-esteem, obsessive-compulsive disorder


Background: Obsession is a repetitive and harmful thought, perception, feeling, or movement that is associated with a sense of compulsion and a tendency to resist it. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction training on self-efficacy and self-esteem in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD).

Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design, control group, and follow-up period. The statistical population of this study included all patients with OCD in Tehran, Iran, in 2018. The study sample consisted of 30 people who were selected using a convenience sampling method and divided into experimental (n = 15) and control group (n = 15) participants. Measurement tools included the Coopersmith Self-esteem Inventory (CSEI) (1976) and General Self-Efficacy (GSE) Scale (Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995). First, a pretest was conducted in both groups. The experimental group then underwent eight sessions of intervention each lasting 90 minutes, and then, the posttest was performed in both groups. Moreover, one month later, the follow-up phase was completed. Data were analyzed using multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA).

Results: The results showed that mindfulness-based stress reduction training was effective on self-efficacy and self-esteem in patients with OCD, and this effect persisted until the follow-up.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that mindfulness therapy can stop the rumination cycle and distance individuals from their negative thoughts. Challenging negative beliefs about emotions improves self-esteem and self-efficacy in patients with OCD.


Baron, R. A., Mueller, B. A., & Wolfe, M. T. (2016). Self-efficacy and entrepreneurs' adoption of unattainable goals: The restraining effects of self-control. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(1), 55-71.

Barry, C. T., Doucette, H., Loflin, D. C., Rivera-Hudson, N., & Herrington, L. L. (2017). "Let me take a selfie": Associations between self-photography, narcissism, and self-esteem. Psychol. Pop. Media Cult, 6(1), 48-60.

Bennett, R. I., Egan, H., Cook, A., & Mantzios, M. (2018). Mindfulness as an intervention for recalling information from a lecture as a measure of academic performance in higher education: a randomized experiment. Higher Education for the Future, 5(1), 75-88.

Bleidorn, W., Arslan, R. C., Denissen, J. J., Rentfrow, P. J., Gebauer, J. E., Potter, J. et al. (2016). Age and gender differences in self-esteem-A cross-cultural window. J Pers.Soc.Psychol, 111(3), 396-410. doi:2015-57061-001 [pii];10.1037/pspp0000078 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:26692356

Burguiere, E., Monteiro, P., Mallet, L., Feng, G., & Graybiel, A. M. (2015). Striatal circuits, habits, and implications for obsessive-compulsive disorder. Curr.Opin.Neurobiol., 30, 59-65. doi:S0959-4388(14)00170-6 [pii];10.1016/j.conb.2014.08.008 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:25241072

Cherkin, D. C., Sherman, K. J., Balderson, B. H., Cook, A. J., Anderson, M. L., Hawkes, R. J. et al. (2016). Effect of mindfulness-based stress reduction vs cognitive behavioral therapy or usual care on back pain and functional limitations in adults with chronic low back pain: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA., 315(12), 1240-1249. doi:2504811 [pii];10.1001/jama.2016.2323 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:27002445

Fairfax, H. (2008). The use of mindfulness in obsessive compulsive disorder: suggestions for its application and integration in existing treatment. Clin Psychol Psychother., 15(1), 53-59. doi:10.1002/cpp.557 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:19115428

Farmer, S. M., & Tierney, P. (2017). Considering Creative Self-Efficacy: Its current state and ideas for future inquiry. In M. Karwowski & J. C. Kaufman (Eds.), The creative self explorations in creativity research (pp. 23-47). San Diego: Academic Press.

Frank, J. L., Reibel, D., Broderick, P., Cantrell, T., & Metz, S. (2015). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on educator stress and well-being: Results from a pilot study. Mindfulness, 6(2), 208-216.

Hale, L., Strauss, C., & Taylor, B. L. (2013). The effectiveness and acceptability of mindfulness-based therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: A review of the literature. Mindfulness, 4(4), 375-382. Retrieved from

Hanstede, M., Gidron, Y., & Nyklicek, I. (2008). The effects of a mindfulness intervention on obsessive-compulsive symptoms in a non-clinical student population. J Nerv.Ment.Dis., 196(10), 776-779. doi:10.1097/NMD.0b013e31818786b8 [doi];00005053-200810000-00009 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:18852623

Hertenstein, E., Rose, N., Voderholzer, U., Heidenreich, T., Nissen, C., Thiel, N. et al. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in obsessive-compulsive disorder - a qualitative study on patients' experiences. BMC.Psychiatry, 12, 185. doi:1471-244X-12-185 [pii];10.1186/1471-244X-12-185 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23114260

Johnson BW, Redfield DL, Miller RL, Simpson RE. The Coopersmith self-esteem inventory: A construct validation study. Educational and Psychological Measurement. 1983 Sep;43(3):907-13.

Juul, L., Pallesen, K. J., Piet, J., Parsons, C., & Fjorback, L. O. (2018). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction in a self-selecting and self-paying community setting. Mindfulness, 9(4), 1288-1298.

Murray, G. K., Knolle, F., Ersche, K. D., Craig, K. J., Abbott, S., Shabbir, S. S. et al. (2019). Dopaminergic drug treatment remediates exaggerated cingulate prediction error responses in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Psychopharmacology.(Berl.), 236(8), 2325-2336. doi:10.1007/s00213-019-05292-2 [doi];10.1007/s00213-019-05292-2 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:31201476

Orth, U., Robins, R. W., Meier, L. L., & Conger, R. D. (2016). Refining the vulnerability model of low self-esteem and depression: Disentangling the effects of genuine self-esteem and narcissism. J Pers.Soc.Psychol, 110(1), 133-149. doi:2015-17758-001 [pii];10.1037/pspp0000038 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:25915133

Panadero, E., Jonsson, A., & Botella, J. (2017). Effects of self-assessment on self-regulated learning and self-efficacy: Four meta-analyses. Educ. Res. Rev., 22, 74-98.

Parsons, C. E., Crane, C., Parsons, L. J., Fjorback, L. O., & Kuyken, W. (2017). Home practice in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction: A systematic review and meta-analysis of participants' mindfulness practice and its association with outcomes. Behav Res Ther, 95, 29-41. doi:S0005-7967(17)30097-9 [pii];10.1016/j.brat.2017.05.004 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:28527330

Polusny, M. A., Erbes, C. R., Thuras, P., Moran, A., Lamberty, G. J., Collins, R. C. et al. (2015). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for posttraumatic stress disorder among veterans: A randomized clinical trial. JAMA., 314(5), 456-465. doi:2422542 [pii];10.1001/jama.2015.8361 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:26241597

Shapiro, S. L., Astin, J. A., Bishop, S. R., & Cordova, M. (2005). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for health care professionals: results from a randomized trial. Int. J Stress. Manag., 12(2), 164-176.

Song, Y., & Lindquist, R. (2015). Effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on depression, anxiety, stress and mindfulness in Korean nursing students. Nurse.Educ Today., 35(1), 86-90. doi:S0260-6917(14)00222-6 [pii];10.1016/j.nedt.2014.06.010 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:25066651

St-Louis, A. C., Verner-Filion, J., Bergeron, C. M., & Vallerand, R. J. (2018). Passion and mindfulness: Accessing adaptive self-processes. J Posit. Psycho., 13(2), 155-164. doi:doi: 10.1080/17439760.2016.1245771.

Wahl, K., Huelle, J. O., Zurowski, B., & Kordon, A. (2013). Managing obsessive thoughts during brief exposure: An experimental study comparing mindfulness-based strategies and distraction in obsessivecompulsive disorder. Cognit. Ther. Res., 37(4), 752-761.




How to Cite

Haji-Adineh, S., Rafeian, S., & Vahidi, M. (2019). The Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction Training on Self-Efficacy and Self-Esteem in Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture, 6(4), 217-223.



Quantitative Study(ies)