An Investigation of the Effect of Smoking, Alcohol, and Drug Use on Male Infertility


  • A. Heri Iswanto Department of Public Health, School of Health Sciences, University of Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia
  • Yasir Salam Karim Al-Manara College for Medical Sciences, Maysan, Iraq
  • Zahidul Islam Assistant Professor, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws (AIKOL), International Islamic University Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia
  • Ola Kamal A. Alkadir Al-Nisour University College, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Abduladheem Turki Jalil College of Technical Engineering, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq
  • Ali T. Khlaif College of Pharmacy, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq
  • Yasser Fakri Mustafa Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
  • Hamzah H. Kzar Department of Chemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Qasim Green University, Al-Qasim, Iraq
  • Moaed E. Al-Gazally College of Medicine, University of Al-Ameed , Karbala, Iraq
  • Narmin Beheshtizadeh Department of Social Sciences, School of Social and Economic Sciences, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran


Smoking, Infertility, Alcohol, Drug


Background: Infertility in men has increased in recent years. Numerous physical, chemical, biological, and social factors are known to play a role in reducing semen quality, in between, there are high-risk behaviors that affect the quality of semen. In this paper, the effects of three factors: smoking, alcohol consumption, and drugs have been investigated.

Methods: This case-control study was performed from June to September 2021 on 500 people, 250 people with normal semen quality and 250 people with defective semen quality. The data collection tool was a questionnaire made by researchers and semen test results. Finally, the collected data were analyzed by descriptive method with SPSS software. For quantitative variables, mean and standard deviation (SD) were used, while frequency and percentage reports were used for qualitative variables.

Results: Drug use had a significant relationship with the shape and motility of sperm (B = -0.675, P = 0.005). The chance of natural semen decreases by 0.506 times with an increase of one drug use unit; moreover, the older the age of onset of drug use, the more the semen disorders (B = 0.514, P = 0.002)..

Conclusion: Smoking and alcohol consumption were not identified as factors affecting semen quality, but there was a significant relationship between drug use and age of onset and semen disorders.




How to Cite

Iswanto, A. H., Yasir Salam Karim, Zahidul Islam, Ola Kamal A. Alkadir, Abduladheem Turki Jalil, Khlaif, A. T., Yasser Fakri Mustafa, Hamzah H. Kzar, Moaed E. Al-Gazally, & Beheshtizadeh, N. . (2022). An Investigation of the Effect of Smoking, Alcohol, and Drug Use on Male Infertility. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture, 9(3), 218-227. Retrieved from



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