Investigating the Effect of Smoking on the Incidence of Internal Diseases (A Review Paper)

Smoking Cardiovascular disease Lung cancer


  • A. Heri Iswanto
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Health Science, University of Pembangunan Nasional Veteran Jakarta, Jakarta, Indonesia, Indonesia
  • Ali Abdulhussain Fadhil College of Medical Technology/ Medical Lab techniques, ; Al-farahidi University/Iraq , Iraq
  • Md. Zahidul Islam Assistant Professor, Ahmad Ibrahim Kulliyyah of Laws (AIKOL), International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Malaysia
  • Ali K. Mohammed
  • Abduladheem Turki Jalil Faculty of Biology and Ecology, Yanka Kupala State University of Grodno, Grodno, Belarus, Belarus
  • Ali T. Khlaif College of Pharmacy, Al-Ayen University, Thi-Qar, Iraq, Iraq
  • Yasser Fakri Mustafa Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Pharmacy, University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq, Iraq
  • Hamzah H. Kzar Department of Chemistry, College of Veterinary Medicine, Al-Qasim Green University, Al-Qasim, Iraq, Iraq
  • Moaed E. Al-Gazally College of Medicine, University of Al-Ameed, Karbala, Iraq, Iraq
  • Narmin Beheshtizadeh Department of Social Sciences, Faculty of Social and Economic Sciences, Al-Zahra University, Tehran, Iran, Iran, Islamic Republic of
Vol 9, No 4: 2022
Review Article(s)


Background: According to World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, there are currently 1.1 billion tobacco smokers worldwide. This study follows the need for change in the increasing trend of lifestyle-related diseases and the lack of extensive studies on the pattern of smoking.

Methods: In the current study, an electronic database search was conducted to identify studies that examined the impact of smoking on internal diseases from the beginning of February 2018 to the end of December 2021. After eliminating numerous articles based on their titles and abstracts, 273 articles pertinent to the study's objectives were selected. Due to the inadequacy of the target audience and the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 239 of the remaining articles were eliminated. The 44 remaining articles were examined more closely.

Results: Each cigarette produces more than 7,000 chemicals. Many of these substances are toxic, and about 69 of them can cause cancer. For every 15 cigarettes you smoke, a mutation occurs in the body. Mutations are the cause of cancer. Studies have shown a clear relationship between dose and response, with a sharp increase in the risk of arterial disease in heavy smokers. In countries where approximately 30% of the population smokes, 50% of arterial disease can be attributed to smoking.

Conclusion: Smoking increases the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and lung disease, and leads to an increased risk of lung, throat, stomach, and bladder cancer, and many other cancers. One of the most important organs in the body that can be disrupted by smoking is the heart.