Emotional Schema Therapy for Social Phobia in Medical Students

Authors

  • Allaa Hatim Thanoon The University of Mashreq, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Miaad Adnan Department of Anesthesia Techniques, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq
  • Moaed Abdullah Jasim College of education/ Medical Lab techniques; Al-Farahidi University/Iraq
  • Ali Hussein Adhab
  • Zainab Tareq Abdulkareem

Abstract

Background: Metacognitive beliefs are associated with various psychological pathologies in social anxiety disorder, thus necessitating psychological therapies in individuals with social anxiety symptoms. The current study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of group training in emotional schema therapy on metacognitive beliefs.

Methods: The present study was a quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The statistical population comprised all students with social phobia who attended the University of Surabaya and Airlangga University between 2020 and 2021. Through a multistage cluster sampling strategy, 80 students were chosen at random from a statistical population of 143 individuals. For this purpose, the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN) and 5-DSM were administered. Analysis of covariance in SPSS software was used to evaluate the intervention's effectiveness.

Results: The mean posttest score differed significantly between the intervention and control groups (F = 8.46; P < 0.05). Moreover, positive beliefs changed the most (25.7%), while the need to control thoughts changed the least (15.21%).

Conclusion: Emotional schema therapy has effectively reduced symptoms of social phobia and improved medical students' social communication abilities.

References

Al-Bawaleez, M. (2022). The extent to which psychological loneliness and social withdrawal predict social phobia disorder among a sample of hearing-impaired adolescents. Clin Schizophr Relat Psychoses, 16(S3), 1-6.

Alfano, C. A., & Beidel, D. C. (2011). Social anxiety in adolescents and young adults: translating developmental science into practice (1st ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Amiri-Moghadam, A. (2019). Comparison of the effectiveness of schema therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy on depression and anxiety in students of Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Int J Body Mind Culture, 6(4), 209-216.

Becker, E., Orellana Rios, C. L., Lahmann, C., Rucker, G., Bauer, J., & Boeker, M. (2018). Anxiety as a risk factor of Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. Br.J Psychiatry, 213(5), 654-660. doi:S0007125018001733 [pii];10.1192/bjp.2018.173 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:30339108

Bitsika, V., Sharpley, C., & Heyne, D. (2022). Risk for school refusal among autistic boys bullied at school:Investigating associations with social phobia and separation anxiety. Int J Disabil Dev Educ, 69(1), 190-203

Brook, C. A., & Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Social anxiety disorder: a review of environmental risk factors. Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat, 4(1), 123-143. doi:10.2147/ndt.s1799 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:18728768

Celano, C. M., Daunis, D. J., Lokko, H. N., Campbell, K. A., & Huffman, J. C. (2016). Anxiety disorders and cardiovascular disease. Curr Psychiatry Rep., 18(11), 101. doi:10.1007/s11920-016-0739-5 [doi];10.1007/s11920-016-0739-5 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:27671918

Connor, K. M., Davidson, J. R., Churchill, L. E., Sherwood, A., Foa, E., & Weisler, R. H. (2000). Psychometric properties of the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). New self-rating scale. Br.J Psychiatry, 176, 379-386. doi:S0007125000264830 [pii];10.1192/bjp.176.4.379 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:10827888

Harter, M. C., Conway, K. P., & Merikangas, K. R. (2003). Associations between anxiety disorders and physical illness. Eur.Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci, 253(6), 313-320. doi:10.1007/s00406-003-0449-y [doi]. Retrieved from PM:14714121

Izgic, F., Akyuz, G., Dogan, O., & Kugu, N. (2004). Social phobia among university students and its relation to self-esteem and body image. Can.J Psychiatry, 49(9), 630-634. doi:10.1177/070674370404900910 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:15503736

Jia, G., Dai, H., Chu, Y., Wang, X., Hao, Y., & Wang, S. (2022). Psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of social anxiety scale for social media users and cross-sectional investigation into this disorder among college students. Compr.Psychiatry, 116, 152328. doi:S0010-440X(22)00034-7 [pii];10.1016/j.comppsych.2022.152328 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:35623103

Leahy, R. L., Holland, S. J., & McGinn, L. K. (2011). Treatment Plans and Interventions for Depression and Anxiety Disorders. Treatment plans and interventions for evidence-based psychotherapy. New York, NY: Guilford Publications.

Lipsitz, J. D., & Schneier, F. R. (2000). Social phobia. Epidemiology and cost of illness. Pharmacoeconomics., 18(1), 23-32. doi:10.2165/00019053-200018010-00003 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:11010601

Malekian, A., Afshar, H., & Ahamadzadeh, G. (2013). Cultural issues in anxiety disorders: Some particularities of the Iranian Culture. Int J Body Mind Culture, 1(1), 54-58.

Merikangas, K. R., Avenevoli, S., Acharyya, S., Zhang, H., & Angst, J. (2002). The spectrum of social phobia in the Zurich cohort study of young adults. Biol Psychiatry, 51(1), 81-91. doi:S0006322301013099 [pii];10.1016/s0006-3223(01)01309-9 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:11801233

Morrison, A. S., & Heimberg, R. G. (2013). Social anxiety and social anxiety disorder. Annu.Rev.Clin Psychol., 9, 249-274. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-050212-185631 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23537485

Naghibzadeh, N., Johari Fard, R., & Moradi, L. (2018). The effectiveness of psychodrama therapy on quality of life, social adjustment, and hopefulness in patients with diabetes mellitus. Int J Body Mind Culture, 5(4), 193-201.

Özdemir, A. , Kapikiran, G. , Bülbüloglu, S., & Saritas, S. (2022). The effect of nomophobic behavior of student nurses using smartphones on social phobia. Journal In folk Medicine and History of Medicine, 12 (1), 77-85.

Samantaray, N. N., Kar, N., & Mishra, S. R. (2022). A follow-up study on treatment effects of cognitive-behavioral therapy on social anxiety disorder: Impact of COVID-19 fear during post-lockdown period. Psychiatry Res, 310, 114439. doi:S0165-1781(22)00053-1 [pii];10.1016/j.psychres.2022.114439 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:35180611

Santabarbara, J., Lipnicki, D. M., Villagrasa, B., Lobo, E., & Lopez-Anton, R. (2019). Anxiety and risk of dementia: Systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Maturitas., 119, 14-20. doi:S0378-5122(18)30571-1 [pii];10.1016/j.maturitas.2018.10.014 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:30502746

Sfeir, M., Saliba, G., Akel, M., Hallit, S., & Obeid, S. (2022). Association between perfectionism and life satisfaction among a sample of the Lebanese population: The indirect role of social phobia and validation of the Arabic version of the Social Phobia Inventory. Perspect.Psychiatr.Care. doi:10.1111/ppc.13087 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:35383939

Stein, D. J., Lim, C. C. W., Roest, A. M., de Jonge, P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Al-Hamzawi, A. et al. (2017). The cross-national epidemiology of social anxiety disorder: Data from the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. BMC Med, 15(1), 143. doi:10.1186/s12916-017-0889-2 [doi];10.1186/s12916-017-0889-2 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:28756776

Tully, P. J., Cosh, S. M., & Baune, B. T. (2013). A review of the affects of worry and generalized anxiety disorder upon cardiovascular health and coronary heart disease. Psychol.Health Med, 18(6), 627-644. doi:10.1080/13548506.2012.749355 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23324073

Voncken, M. J., Dijk, C., Stohr, F., Niesten, I. J. M., Schruers, K., & Kuypers, K. P. C. (2021). The effect of intranasally administered oxytocin on observed social behavior in social anxiety disorder. Eur.Neuropsychopharmacol., 53, 25-33. doi:S0924-977X(21)00274-1 [pii];10.1016/j.euroneuro.2021.07.005 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:34358819

Watkins, L. L., Blumenthal, J. A., Davidson, J. R., Babyak, M. A., McCants, C. B., & Sketch, M. H. (2006). Phobic anxiety, depression, and risk of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with coronary heart disease. Psychosom.Med, 68(5), 651-656. doi:68/5/651 [pii];10.1097/01.psy.0000228342.53606.b3 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:17012517

Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1996). Modelling cognition in emotional disorder: the S-REF model. Behav Res Ther, 34(11-12), 881-888. doi:S0005-7967(96)00050-2 [pii];10.1016/s0005-7967(96)00050-2 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:8990539

Wells, A., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2004). A short form of the metacognitions questionnaire: properties of the MCQ-30. Behav Res Ther, 42(4), 385-396. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(03)00147-5 [doi];S0005796703001475 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:14998733

Wells, A. (2005). Detached mindfulness in cognitive therapy: A metacognitive analysis and ten techniques. J Rat-Emo Cognitive-Behav Ther, 23(4), 337-355.

Zhang, Y., Chen, Y., & Ma, L. (2018). Depression and cardiovascular disease in elderly: Current understanding. J Clin Neurosci, 47, 1-5. doi:S0967-5868(16)30628-2 [pii];10.1016/j.jocn.2017.09.022 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:29066229

Downloads

Published

2022-07-19

How to Cite

Thanoon, A. H. ., Adnan, M. ., Jasim, M. A. ., Adhab, A. H. ., & Abdulkareem, Z. T. . (2022). Emotional Schema Therapy for Social Phobia in Medical Students. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture, 9(3), 167-176. Retrieved from https://ijbmc.org/index.php/ijbmc/article/view/407

Issue

Section

Quantitative Study(ies)

Most read articles by the same author(s)