The Efficacy of Positive Group Psychotherapy on Self-Differentiation of Patients with Prostate Cancer
Background: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the fourth most common cancer globally. The current study aimed to see how positive group psychotherapy affected self-differentiation in men with prostate cancer.
Methods: The current study was an experimental type and was done by conducting a pre- and post-test. The statistical population of this study was all men with prostate cancer of Baghdad Medical City, Baghdad, Iraq (197 men) in 2020. Using simple random sampling, 50 patients with prostate cancer were selected as sample members. The subjects were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The Differentiation of Self Inventory-Revised (DSI-R) was used to collect data. Data were analyzed with multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) using SPSS software.
Results: Comparing pre-test and post-test scores revealed a significant difference in the variable of self-differentiation between the experimental and control groups, so that all of its components, including mixing with other people (F = 38.117, P < 0.001), emotional reactivity (F = 56.483, P < 0.001), personal position (F = 39.540, P < 0.001), and emotional detachment (F = 43.329, P < 0.001) exhibited a significant difference. In other words, positive group psychology increased self-differentiation of patients with prostate cancer.
Conclusion: Due to the high prevalence of prostate cancer in the world and Iraq, this treatment can be administered in the oncology and radiotherapy departments with a psychologist's assistance to expedite patients' recovery.
Azarnik, M. (2019). The effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on quality of life in relation to health and self-efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Int J Body Mind Culture, 6(1), 21-26.
Barkowski, S., Schwartze, D., Strauss, B., Burlingame, G. M., & Rosendahl, J. (2020). Efficacy of group psychotherapy for anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Psychother.Res, 30(8), 965-982. doi:10.1080/10503307.2020.1729440 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32093586
Buser, T. J., Pertuit, T. L., & Muller, D. L. (2019). Nonsuicidal Self-Injury, Stress, and Self-Differentiation. Adultspan J, 18(1), 4-16.
Casellas-Grau, A., Vives, J., Font, A., & Ochoa, C. (2016). Positive psychological functioning in breast cancer: An integrative review. Breast., 27, 136-168. doi:S0960-9776(16)30031-5 [pii];10.1016/j.breast.2016.04.001 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:27113230
Chang, S. H., & Bhat, C. S. (2022). A group counseling model based on bowen family systems theory for college students with codependency in Taiwan. J Spec Group Work, 1-16.
Crawford, E. D., Koo, P. J., Shore, N., Slovin, S. F., Concepcion, R. S., Freedland, S. J. et al. (2019). A clinician's guide to next generation imaging in patients with advanced prostate cancer (RADAR III). J Urol, 201(4), 682-692. doi:S0022-5347(18)43643-9 [pii];10.1016/j.juro.2018.05.164 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:30077557
Davies, D. R., Burlingame, G. M., & Layne, C. M. (2006). Integrating small-group process principles into trauma-focused group psychotherapy: What should a group trauma therapist know? In Psychological effects of catastrophic disasters: Group approaches to treatment (pp. 385-423). New York, NY, US: Haworth Press.
Doba, K., Berna, G., Constant, E., & Nandrino, J. L. (2018). Self-differentiation and eating disorders in early and middle adolescence: A cross-sectional path analysis. Eat.Behav, 29, 75-82. doi:S1471-0153(17)30008-9 [pii];10.1016/j.eatbeh.2018.03.003 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:29547826
Dobiala, E. (2020). Positive group psychotherapy. In E. Messias, H. Peseschkian, & C. Cagande (Eds.), Positive psychiatry, psychotherapy and psychology: clinical applications (pp. 239-252). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing.
Faryabi, M., Rafieipour, A., Haji-Alizadeh, K., & Khodavardian, S. (2022). Comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety, perceived stress, and pain coping strategies in patients with cancer. Int J Body Mind Culture, 8(1), 55-64.
Finzi-Dottan, R., & Schiff, M. (2021). Couple relationship satisfaction: The role of recollection of parental acceptance, self-differentiation, and spousal caregiving. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 39(2), 179-197.
Fizazi, K., Shore, N., Tammela, T. L., Ulys, A., Vjaters, E., Polyakov, S. et al. (2020). Nonmetastatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer and survival with darolutamide. N.Engl.J Med, 383(11), 1040-1049. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001342 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32905676
Gillessen, S., Attard, G., Beer, T. M., Beltran, H., Bjartell, A., Bossi, A. et al. (2020). Management of patients with advanced prostate cancer: Report of the Advanced Prostate Cancer Consensus Conference 2019. Eur Urol, 77(4), 508-547. doi:S0302-2838(20)30048-8 [pii];10.1016/j.eururo.2020.01.012 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32001144
Hocaoğlu, F. B., & Işık, E. (2022). The role of self-construal in the associations between differentiation of self and subjective well-being in emerging adults. Current Psychology. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-02527-4
Işık, E., Özbiler, Ş., Schweer-Collins, M. L., Rodríguez-González, M. (2020). Differentiation of self predicts life satisfaction through marital adjustment. Am J Fam Ther, 48(3), 235-249.
İnce, Ş., Işık, E. (2022). The mediating role of five love languages between differentiation of self and marital satisfaction. Am J Fam Ther, 50(4), 407-423.
Khazaei, F., Khazaei, O., & Ghanbari, H. (2017). Positive psychology interventions for internet addiction treatment. Comput Hum Behav, 72, 304-311.
Kim, H., Edwards, A. B., Sweeney, K. A., & Wetchler, J. L. (2012). The effects of differentiation and attachment on satisfaction and acculturation in Asian-White American international couple relationships: Assessment with Chinese, South Korean, and Japanese partners in relationships with white American partners in the United States. Am J Fam Ther, 40(4), 320-335.
Lee, E. J. (2019). Auricular acupressure and positive group psychotherapy with motivational interviewing for smoking cessation. Holist Nurs.Pract., 33(4), 214-221. doi:10.1097/HNP.0000000000000333 [doi];00004650-201907000-00005 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:31192833
Liu, Q., Tong, D., Liu, G., Gao, J., Wang, L. A., Xu, J. et al. (2018). Metformin inhibits prostate cancer progression by targeting tumor-associated inflammatory infiltration. Clin Cancer Res, 24(22), 5622-5634. doi:1078-0432.CCR-18-0420 [pii];10.1158/1078-0432. CCR-18-0420 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:30012567
Lyu, R., & Lu, S. (2021). The experiences of reconciliation with destructive parents through imagery communication group psychotherapy. J Soc Work Pract, 1-15.
Marmarosh, C. L. (2021). Ruptures and repairs in group psychotherapy: Introduction to the special issue. Group Dyn Theory Res Pract, 25(1), 1-12.
Moon, W. H., & Kim, J. Y. (2021). Stress and depression in the Korean college students: Mediated effects of self-differentiation and self-efficacy. In A.K. Bhoi, P. K. Mallick, C. M. Liu, & V. E. Balas (Eds.), Bio-inspired Neurocomputing (pp. 151-161). Singapore: Springer Singapore.
Nalley, C. (2019). Utilizing telemedicine for supportive group psychotherapy. Oncology Times, 41(24), 27-37.
Peng, W., Zhang, H., & Li, Z. (2019). Responses of lung cancer survivors undergoing gamma knife surgery to supportive group psychotherapy. Medicine (Baltimore.), 98(9), e14693. doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000014693 [doi];00005792-201903010-00044 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:30817604
Pernar, C. H., Ebot, E. M., Wilson, K. M., & Mucci, L. A. (2018). The epidemiology of prostate cancer. Cold.Spring.Harb.Perspect.Med, 8(12). doi:cshperspect.a030361 [pii];10.1101/cshperspect.a030361 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:29311132
Scigala, D. K., Fabris, M. A., Badenes-Ribera, L., Zdankiewicz-Scigala, E., & Longobardi, C. (2021). Alexithymia and self differentiation: The role of fear of intimacy and insecure adult attachment. Contemp Fam Ther, 43(2), 165-176.
Seligman, M. E., Steen, T. A., Park, N., & Peterson, C. (2005). Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions. Am.Psychol, 60(5), 410-421. doi:2005-08033-003 [pii];10.1037/0003-066X.60.5.410 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:16045394
Simon, H. L. M., DiPlacido, J., & Conway, J. M. (2019). Attachment styles in college students and depression: The mediating role of self differentiation. Ment Health Prev, 13, 135-142.
Skowron, E. A., & Schmitt, T. A. (2003). Assessing interpersonal fusion: reliability and validity of a new DSI fusion with others subscale. J Marital.Fam.Ther, 29(2), 209-222. doi:10.1111/j.1752-0606.2003.tb01201.x [doi]. Retrieved from PM:12728779
Thomas, R., Shelley-Tremblay, J., & Joanning, H. (2021). Anxiety explains self-differentiation: implications for bowenian approaches to marriage and family therapy. Am J Fam Ther, 49(5), 534-549.
Umlauff, L., Weber, M., Freitag, N., Fairman, C. M., Heidenreich, A., Bloch, W. et al. (2022). Dietary interventions to improve body composition in men treated with androgen deprivation therapy for prostate cancer: a solution for the growing problem? Prostate.Cancer Prostatic.Dis., 25(2), 149-158. doi:10.1038/s41391-021-00411-7 [doi];10.1038/s41391-021-00411-7 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:34193946
Vartolomei, L., Shariat, S. F., & Vartolomei, M. D. (2018). Psychotherapeutic Interventions targeting prostate cancer patients: A systematic review of the literature. Eur Urol Oncol., 1(4), 283-291. doi:S2588-9311(18)30038-5 [pii];10.1016/j.euo.2018.04.011 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31100249
Weinberg, H. (2020). Online group psychotherapy: Challenges and possibilities during COVID-19. A practice review. Group Dyn Theory Res Pract, 24(3), 201-211.
Yousefzadeh, P., & Ebrahimi, A. (2020). The effectiveness of self-differentiation training on cognitive emotion regulation and psychosomatic symptoms of nurses. Int J Body Mind Culture, 7(3), 140-150.
Zhang, A., & Xu, C. (2021). The influence of college ideological and political education on college students' self differentiation and anxiety from the perspective of positive psychology. Psychiatria Danubin, 33(7), 453-454.
Zhu, X. (2019 May 18-19). Relationship between self-differentiation and self-disclosure of college students: The mediating role of peer attachment. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Economics and Management, Education, Humanities and Social Sciences (EMEHSS 2019); Suzhou, China.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.