Psycho-oncology Curriculum Needs Assessment in Postgraduate Education
Keywords:Psycho-oncology, Curriculum, Needs Assessment
Background: As the survival rate has increased among cancer patients, awareness of their psychological needs has also increased, and several countries have begun to plan psycho-oncology. However, this is not the case in Iran. This study was aimed at assessing the needs of the psycho-oncology curriculum in postgraduate education.
Methods: The study was conducted using the Delphi technique from 2018-2019. The statistical population included all psycho-oncology experts, 36 of whom were selected using purposive sampling. In the first step, the tasks of the cancer psychologist in the areas of education, health care, management, and research were extracted by reviewing the texts, and a preliminary list of needs was defined in a focus group. In the next step, experts were asked to review the defined tasks and add their suggested needs. In the second round of Delphi, a questionnaire was designed to prioritize and determine the importance and capability of performing tasks in Iran. Experts were asked to give a score of 1 to 5 to each of the educational needs based on the tasks of a cancer psychologist. Descriptive indicators of the obtained data were calculated using SPSS software.
Results: The results of the first round of Delphi provided a consensus on 172 educational needs in 4 areas, including 63 in health care, 42 in research, 39 in education, and 28 in management. After merging similar tasks into a group, the final list of tasks (including 107 important and agreed-upon tasks in 58 items) was developed in the second round of Delphi. Moreover, shared tasks were categorized as larger general educational needs, which included 12 general needs.
Conclusion: The findings indicated the importance and variety of the tasks of a cancer psychologist in the areas of health care for patients and their families. It is hoped that this needs assessment will be useful in developing theoretical and practical courses in psycho-oncology with the aim of improving patientsâ€™ quality of life (QOL).
Bober, S. L., Kingsberg, S. A., & Faubion, S. S. (2019). Sexual function after cancer: paying the price of survivorship. Climacteric., 22(6), 558-564. doi:10.1080/13697137.2019.1606796 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31090466
Breitbart, W. S., & Alici, Y. (2009). Psycho-oncology. Harv.Rev.Psychiatry., 17(6), 361-376. doi:10.3109/10673220903465700 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:19968451
Burns, N., & Grove, S. K. (2001). The practice of nursing research: Conduct, critique & utilization. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders.
Chiriac, V. F., Baban, A., & Dumitrascu, D. L. (2018). Psychological stress and breast cancer incidence: A systematic review. Clujul.Med, 91(1), 18-26. doi:10.15386/cjmed-924 [doi];cm-91-18 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:29440947
de Meyrick, J. (2003). The Delphi method and health research. Health Education, 103(1), 7-16.
Die-Trill, M., & Holland, J. (1995). A model curriculum for training in psycho-oncology. Psycho-Oncology, 4(3), 169-182.
Epstein, S. S. (2019). Cancer-gate: How to win the losing cancer war (1st ed.). London, UK: Routledge.
Fathi Vajargah, K. (2002). Educational need assessment: models and techniques. Tehran, Iran: Aeizh.
Goldstein, N. E., & Morrison, R. S. (2012). Evidence-based practice of palliative medicine: Expert consult. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Health Sciences.
Graham, F., & Clark, D. (2020). The changing model of palliative care. Medicine, 36(2), P64-P66.
Holland, J., Watson, M., & Dunn, J. (2011). The IPOS new International Standard of Quality Cancer Care: integrating the psychosocial domain into routine care. Psychooncology., 20(7), 677-680. doi:10.1002/pon.1978 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:21710503
Holland, J. C. (2002). History of psycho-oncology: overcoming attitudinal and conceptual barriers. Psychosom.Med, 64(2), 206-221. doi:10.1097/00006842-200203000-00004 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:11914437
Holland, J. C. (2018). Psycho-oncology: Overview, obstacles and opportunities. Psychooncology., 27(5), 1364-1376. doi:10.1002/pon.4692 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:29749682
Holland, J. C. (2010). Psycho-oncology (2nd ed). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Hyrkas, K., Appelqvist-Schmidlechner, K., & Oksa, L. (2003). Validating an instrument for clinical supervision using an expert panel. Int J Nurs.Stud., 40(6), 619-625. doi:S0020748903000361 [pii];10.1016/s0020-7489(03)00036-1 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:12834927
Kagawa-Singer, M., Dadia, A. V., Yu, M. C., & Surbone, A. (2010). Cancer, culture, and health disparities: time to chart a new course? CA.Cancer J Clin., 60(1), 12-39. doi:60/1/12 [pii];10.3322/caac.20051 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:20097836
Kalus, C. Beloff, H., Brennan, J., McWilliams, E., Payne, S., Royan, L., et al. (2008). The role of psychology in end of life care. The Professional Board of the British Psychological Society.
Khosravi, R. A., Fathi Vajargah, K., & Arefi, M. (2009). Needs assessment about the development of life skills curriculum elements in secondary schools. Journal of Education & Psychology, 5(2), 113-136.
Lawshe, C. H. (1975). A quantitative approach to content validity. Personnel Psychology, 28(4), 563-575.
Lee, S. Y. (2015). Cultural factors associated with breast and cervical cancer screening in Korean American Women in the US: An integrative literature review. Asian Nurs.Res.(Korean Soc Nurs.Sci), 9(2), 81-90. doi:S1976-1317(15)00036-5 [pii];10.1016/j.anr.2015.05.003 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:26160234
Mirzabeigi, A. (2001). Curriculum planning and lesson plan in formal. Tehran, Iran: Yastoroon.
Mousavi Diva, R., Moghadamfar, N., & Amani, O. (2017). Evaluating family functioning and spiritual health in women with breast cancer, cancer- treated and healthy women. Iranian Journal of Psychiatric Nursing, 5(5), 49-55.
Oechsle, K., Ullrich, A., Marx, G., Benze, G., Wowretzko, F., Zhang, Y. et al. (2020). Prevalence and predictors of distress, anxiety, depression, and quality of life in bereaved family caregivers of patients with advanced cancer. Am.J Hosp.Palliat.Care, 37(3), 201-213. doi:10.1177/1049909119872755 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31596115
Slade, M., & Thornicroft, G. (2020). Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN) (2nd ed.). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Speziale, H. S., Streubert, H. J., & Carpenter, D. R. (1999). Qualitative research in nursing: advancing the humanistic imperative. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott.
Vanbutsele, G., Van Belle, S., Surmont, V., De Laat M., Colman, R., Eecloo, K. et al. (2020). The effect of early and systematic integration of palliative care in oncology on quality of life and health care use near the end of life: A randomised controlled trial. Eur.J Cancer, 124, 186-193. doi:S0959-8049(19)30818-4 [pii];10.1016/j.ejca.2019.11.009 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31812934
Watson, M., Ward, S., Vallath, N., Wells, J., & Campbell, R. (2019). Oxford handbook of palliative care (3rd ed.). Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Yaghmaei, F. (2003). Content validity and its estimation. J Med Edu, 3(1), 25-27.