Comparison of Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Psychological Well-being in Working Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Mothers of Typically Developing Children

Authors

  • Atefeh Khoshhalpour MSc in Pshychology, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan)Branch, Isfahan, Iran
  • Shabnam Homayoun-Rad Department of Pshychology (Clinical Psychology), Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, South Tehran, Iran
  • Astireh Moloudi MSc in General Psychology, Payame Noor University, Mazandaran, Iran
  • Fatemeh Pournasrollah MSc, Department of Clinical Psychology, School of Medical Science, Ardabil Branch, Islamic Azad University, Ardabil ,Iran
  • Arezoo Karimi MSc in Psychometrics, School of Humanities, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  • Sara Mousavi Instructor, Department Of Psychology, Payame Noor University, Tehran, Iran

Keywords:

Emotion regulation, Psychological well-being, Mothers, Cerebral palsy

Abstract

Background: Raising a child diagnosed with infantile cerebral palsy (CP) is a challenge for families and causes many changes in their lifestyle. This study aimed to compare the cognitive emotion regulation and psychological well-being in working mothers of children with CP and mothers of typically developing children.

Methods: As a retrospective and causal-comparative design, this was a descriptive study. This study was conducted in Tehran, Iran, in 2019; the sample was purposefully selected from working mothers with CP children who have been referred to educational and rehabilitation centers (Tak and Pouya, District 2, Tehran) as well as mothers with healthy children enrolled in kindergartens (District 2, Tehran). The sample number was selected based on previous comparative studies of 100 working mothers with CP children (n = 50) and mothers with healthy children (n = 50) who answered Ryff Psychological Well-being Questionnaire and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ). In this research, in addition to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (K-S) normality test, mean, standard deviation (SD), and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used by SPSS software.

Results: There was a significant difference between working mothers with healthy children and working mothers with unhealthy children (F = 115.15, P < 0.001).

Conclusion: This study supports that working mothers of children with CP experienced a low level of cognitive emotion regulation and psychological well-being compared to mothers of typically developing children.

References

Aghababaei, N. (2022). , Farahani, H. (2011). The role of trait gratitude in predicting psychological and subjective well-being. Journal of Developmental Psychology, 8(29), 75-85.

Barlow, J. H., Cullen Powell, L. A., & Cheshire, A. (2006). Psychological well being among mothers of children with cerebral palsy. Early Child Dev Care, 176(3-4), 421-428.

Brody, L. S. (2017). The fifth trimester: The Working Mom's Guide to Style, Sanity, and Success After Baby. New York, NY: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group.

Chen, H. (2016). A theoretic review of emotion regulation. Open J Soc Sci, 04, 147-153.

Cramm, J. M., & Nieboer, A. P. (2012). Longitudinal study of parents' impact on quality of life of children and young adults with intellectual disabilities. J Appl.Res Intellect.Disabil., 25(1), 20-28. doi:10.1111/j.1468-3148.2011.00640.x [doi]. Retrieved from PM:22473945

Darling-White, M., Sakash, A., & Hustad, K. C. (2018). Characteristics of speech rate in children with cerebral palsy: A longitudinal study. J Speech Lang.Hear.Res, 61(10), 2502-2515. doi:2706431 [pii];10.1044/2018_JSLHR-S-17-0003 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:30286232

Extremera, N., Quintana-Orts, C., Sanchez-Alvarez, N., & Rey, L. (2019). The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies on problematic smartphone use: comparison between problematic and non-problematic adolescent users. Int J Environ.Res Public Health, 16(17). doi:ijerph16173142 [pii];10.3390/ijerph16173142 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31466410

Fernandez-Alcantara, M., Garcia-Caro, M. P., Laynez-Rubio, C., Perez-Marfil, M. N., Marti-Garcia, C., Benitez-Feliponi, A. et al. (2015). Feelings of loss in parents of children with infantile cerebral palsy. Disabil.Health J, 8(1), 93-101. doi:S1936-6574(14)00086-7 [pii];10.1016/j.dhjo.2014.06.003 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:25096631

Findler, L., Klein, J. A., & Gabis, L. (2016). Subjective happiness among mothers of children with disabilities: The role of stress, attachment, guilt and social support. Res Dev Disabil., 55, 44-54. doi:S0891-4222(16)30046-4 [pii];10.1016/j.ridd.2016.03.006 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:27037989

Fritz H., Sewell-Roberts C. (2020) Family stress associated with cerebral palsy. In Miller F., Bachrach S., Lennon N., O'Neil M.E. (eds). Cerebral Palsy (pp. 515-545). Cham, Switzerlans: Springer, Cham.

Garcia, A. (2020). Examining maternal emotion regulation in children with and without ADHD: A multimodal approach [PhD Thesis]. Miami, FL: Florida International University.

Garnefski, N., & Kraaij, V. (2007). The Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire: Psychometric features and prospective relationships with depression and anxiety in adults. Eur J Psychol Assess, 23(3), 141–149.

Garnefski, N., Koopman, H., Kraaij, V., & ten Cate R. (2009). Brief report: Cognitive emotion regulation strategies and psychological adjustment in adolescents with a chronic disease. J Adolesc., 32(2), 449-454. doi:S0140-1971(08)00013-4 [pii];10.1016/j.adolescence.2008.01.003 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:18775562

Gross, J. J. (2001). Emotion regulation in adulthood: Timing is everything. Curr Dir Psychol Sci, 10(6), 214-219.

Gross, J. J. (2015). Emotion regulation: Current status and future prospects. Psychol Inq, 26(1), 1-26.

Gugala, B., Penar-Zadarko, B., Pieciak-Kotlarz, D., Wardak, K., Lewicka-Chomont, A., Futyma-Ziaja, M. et al. (2019). Assessment of anxiety and depression in polish primary parental caregivers of children with cerebral palsy compared to a control group, as well as identification of selected predictors. Int J Environ.Res Public Health, 16(21). doi:ijerph16214173 [pii];10.3390/ijerph16214173 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31671833

Guy, B., & Arthur, B. (2020). Academic motherhood during COVID-19: Navigating our dual roles as educators and mothers. Gend Work Organ, 27(5), 887-899.

Hasani, J. (2010). The psychometric properties of the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2(3), 73-84.

Hertel-Fernandez, A. (2016). How employers recruit their workers into politics and why political scientists should care. Perspect Politics, 14, 410-421.

Himmelmann, K. (2020). Children and youth with complex cerebral palsy: Care and management. Edited by Laurie J. Glader, Richard D. Stevenson. London: Mac Keith Press, 2019, pp 384. ISBN: 978-1-909962-98-9. Acta Paediatrica, 109(4), 861.

Homan, K. J., Greenberg, J. S., & Mailick, M. R. (2020). Generativity and well-being of midlife and aging parents with children with developmental or mental health problems. Res Aging., 42(3-4), 95-104. doi:10.1177/0164027519884759 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31698996

Irwin, L., Jesmont, C., & Basu, A. (2019). A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of interventions to improve psychological wellbeing in the parents of children with cerebral palsy. Res Dev Disabil., 95, 103511. doi:S0891-4222(19)30178-7 [pii];10.1016/j.ridd.2019.103511 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31670025

Jermann F., Van der Linden M., d'Acremont M., Zermatten A. (2006). Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ): Confirmatory factor analysis and psychometric properties of the french translation. Eur J Psychol Assess. 22, 126–131.

Masefield, S. C., Prady, S. L., Sheldon, T. A., Small, N., Jarvis, S., & Pickett, K. E. (2020). The Caregiver health effects of caring for young children with developmental disabilities: A meta-analysis. Matern.Child Health J, 24(5), 561-574. doi:10.1007/s10995-020-02896-5 [doi];10.1007/s10995-020-02896-5 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:32048172

Michael, O., Olufemi, O., Jasola, F., Abigail, D., Adetutu, L., & Modinat, A. (2019). Psychosocial problems among mothers of children with cerebral palsy attending physiotherapy outpatient department of two selected tertiary health centres in Ogun state: A pilot study. AIMS Medical Science, 6(2), 158-169.

Mohan, R., & Kulkarni, M. (2018). Resilience in parents of children with intellectual disabilities. Psychol Dev Soc, 30(1), 19-43.

Nezamipour, E., Ahadi, H. (2016). The Effect of Cognitive Emotion Regulation Strategies on the Relationship between Personality Traits and Quality of Life in Dialysis Patients . Qom Univ Med Sci J; 10(2) :70-80

Nimbalkar, S., Raithatha, S., Shah, R., & Panchal, D. A. (2014). a qualitative study of psychosocial problems among parents of children with cerebral palsy attending two tertiary care hospitals in Western India. ISRN.Family Med, 2014, 769619. doi:10.1155/2014/769619 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:24967331

Palacio, C., Krikorian, A., & Limonero, J. T. (2018). The influence of psychological factors on the burden of caregivers of patients with advanced cancer: Resiliency and caregiver burden. Palliat.Support Care, 16(3), 269-277. doi:S1478951517000268 [pii];10.1017/S1478951517000268 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:28464972

Panahi L. (2021). Etebarian Khorasgani A, Amiri M, Pouy S. Effects of continuous care model on mental health in mothers of children with cerebral palsy: A randomized clinical trial. Shiraz E-Med J, 23 (1), e108394.

Park, E. Y. (2021). Relationship among Gross Motor Function, Parenting Stress, Sense of Control, and Depression in Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy. Int J Environ.Res Public Health, 18(17). doi:ijerph18179285 [pii];10.3390/ijerph18179285 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:34501875

Patel, D. R., Neelakantan, M., Pandher, K., & Merrick, J. (2020). Cerebral palsy in children: a clinical overview. Transl.Pediatr., 9(Suppl 1), S125-S135. doi:10.21037/tp.2020.01.01 [doi];tp-09-S1-S125 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:32206590

Purnamaningsih, E. H. (2017). Personality and emotion regulation strategies. Int J Psychol Res, 10(1), 53-60.

Rohder, K., Willerslev-Olsen, M., Nielsen, J. B., Greisen, G., & Harder, S. (2021). Parent-infant interactions among infants with high risk of cerebral palsy: A protocol for an observational study of infant and parental factors for dyadic reciprocity. Front Psychiatry, 12, 736676. doi:10.3389/fpsyt.2021.736676 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:34658969

Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol, 57(6), 1069–1081.

Ryff, C. D., Singer, B., Love, G. D., & Essex, M. J. (1998). Resilience in adulthood and later life: Defining features and dynamic processes. In Handbook of aging and mental health: An integrative approach (pp. 69-96). The Plenum series in adult developing and aging. New York, NY: Plenum Press.

Sadowska, M., Sarecka-Hujar, B., & Kopyta, I. (2020). Cerebral palsy: current opinions on definition, epidemiology, risk factors, classification and treatment options. Neuropsychiatr.Dis.Treat., 16, 1505-1518. doi:10.2147/NDT.S235165 [doi];235165 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:32606703

Sloan, C. J., Mailick, M. R., Hong, J., Ha, J. H., Greenberg, J. S., & Almeida, D. M. (2020). Longitudinal changes in well-being of parents of individuals with developmental or mental health problems. Soc Sci Med, 264, 113309. doi:S0277-9536(20)30528-1 [pii];10.1016/j.socscimed.2020.113309 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32858491

Smith, A. M., & Grzywacz, J. G. (2014). Health and well-being in midlife parents of children with special health needs. Fam.Syst.Health, 32(3), 303-312. doi:2014-14402-001 [pii];10.1037/fsh0000049 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:24749680

Smith, K. (2012). Schaefer, A. P. Who cares for the sick kids? parents' access to paid time to care for a sick child. Durham NH: Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire.

Surender, S., Gowda, V. K., Sanjay, K. S., Basavaraja, G. V., Benakappa, N., & Benakappa, A. (2016). Caregiver-reported health-related quality of life of children with cerebral palsy and their families and its association with gross motor function: A South Indian study. J Neurosci Rural.Pract., 7(2), 223-227. doi:10.4103/0976-3147.178657 [doi];JNRP-7-223 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:27114652

Yang, H. M., & Kim, H. R. (2021). Work-Family Conflict on Children's Internet Addiction: Role of Parenting Styles in Korean Working Mother. Int J Environ.Res Public Health, 18(11). doi:ijerph18115774 [pii];10.3390/ijerph18115774 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:34072195

Downloads

Published

2022-07-19

How to Cite

Khoshhalpour, A. ., Homayoun-Rad, S. ., Moloudi, A. ., Pournasrollah, F. ., Karimi, A. ., & Mousavi, S. . (2022). Comparison of Cognitive Emotion Regulation and Psychological Well-being in Working Mothers of Children with Cerebral Palsy and Mothers of Typically Developing Children. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture, 9(3), 237-245. Retrieved from https://ijbmc.org/index.php/ijbmc/article/view/369

Issue

Section

Quantitative Study(ies)