The Efficacy of Positive Psychology on Hope, Self-Compassion, and Post-Traumatic Growth in Women with Breast Cancer

Authors

  • Sura Hasan Al-Zubaidi Department of Anesthesia Techniques, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Babylon, Iraq
  • Ameer Haider Jawad Department of Medical Laboratory Technology, College of Medical Technology, The Islamic University, Najaf, Iraq
  • Albab Fawwaz Alfarras Department of Medical Laboratory Techniques, College of Medical Technology, Al-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq
  • Mohammed Kadhim Obaid College of Islamic Science, Ahl Al Bayt University, Karbala, Iraq
  • Mohannd Abdalkareem Allamy Department of Nursing, Al-Zahrawi University College, Karbala, Iraq

Keywords:

Breast cancer, Positive psychology, Hope, Self-compassion, Post-traumatic growth

Abstract

Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and can cause various psychological issues for those with it. The current study aimed to determine the efficacy of positive psychology in improving hope, self-compassion, and post-traumatic growth in patients with breast cancer.

Methods: The current study used a quasi-experimental research with a pre-test, post-test, and follow-up design. The statistical population included 483 women with breast cancer diagnosis referred to King Abdullah Medical City Hospital in Makkah Region, Saudi Arabia, in 2021. One hundred patients were chosen using a simple random sampling method and assigned to intervention and control groups (50 people in each group). Members of the intervention group received positive psychology training. At various stages of the test, Snyder Hope Scale (1996), Neff Self-Compassion Scale (2003), and Tedeschi and Calhoun Post-Traumatic Growth Inventory (1996) were used. The data were analyzed using the mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) test in SPSS software.

Results: Positive psychology-based intervention effectively improved hope (F = 17.94, P = 0.002), self-compassion (F = 10.41, P = 0.003), and post-traumatic growth (F = 35.23, P = 0.001) in women with breast cancer.

Conclusion: Positive psychology provides patients with breast cancer with a compassionate and hopeful understanding of the disturbances affecting their quality of life, allowing them to consciously accept their feelings and thoughts.

References

Abdollahi, A., Panahipour, H., Hosseinian, S., & Allen, K. A. (2019). The effects of perceived stress on hope in women with breast cancer and the role of psychological hardiness. Psychooncology., 28(7), 1477-1482. doi:10.1002/pon.5102 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31046153

Abdollahi, A., Taheri, A., & Allen, K. A. (2020). Self-compassion moderates the perceived stress and self-care behaviors link in women with breast cancer. Psychooncology., 29(5), 927-933. doi:10.1002/pon.5369 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32100897

Arambasic, J., Sherman, K. A., & Elder, E. (2019). Attachment styles, self-compassion, and psychological adjustment in long-term breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology., 28(5), 1134-1141. doi:10.1002/pon.5068 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:30892774

Bergqvist, J., & Strang, P. (2019). Breast cancer patients' preferences for truth versus hope are dynamic and change during late lines of palliative chemotherapy. J Pain Symptom.Manage., 7(4), 746-752. doi:S0885-3924(18)31484-2 [pii];10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2018.12.336 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:30639732

Brix, S. A., Bidstrup, P. E., Christensen, J., Rottmann, N., Olsen, A., Tjonneland, A. et al. (2013). Post-traumatic growth among elderly women with breast cancer compared to breast cancer-free women. Acta Oncol., 52(2), 345-354. doi:10.3109/0284186X.2012.744878 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:23240637

Brown, S. L., Hughes, M., Campbell, S., & Cherry, M. G. (2020). Could worry and rumination mediate relationships between self-compassion and psychological distress in breast cancer survivors? Clin Psychol Psychother., 27(1), 1-10. doi:10.1002/cpp.2399 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31756262

Faryabi, M., Rafieipour, A., Haji-Alizadeh, K., & Khodavardian, S. (2022). Comparison of the effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral therapy and acceptance and commitment therapy on anxiety, perceived stress, and pain coping strategies in patients with cancer. Int J Body Mind Culture, 8(1), 55-64.

Fujimoto, T., & Okamura, H. (2021). The influence of coping types on post-traumatic growth in patients with primary breast cancer. Jpn.J Clin Oncol., 51(1), 85-91. doi:5898209 [pii];10.1093/jjco/hyaa159 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32856067

Ginter, A. C. (2020). "The day you lose your hope is the day you start to die": Quality of life measured by young women with metastatic breast cancer. J Psychosoc.Oncol., 38(4), 418-434. doi:10.1080/07347332.2020.1715523 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32067600

Goli, F., Scheidt, C. E., Gholamrezaei, A., & Farzanegan, M. (2014). The role of locus of control and attributional style in coping strategies and quality of life among iranian breast cancer and colorectal cancer patients: A pilot study. Int J Body Mind Culture, 1(1), 65-72.

Hoffman, C., & Baker, B. (2022). Effects of mindful self-compassion program on psychological well-being and levels of compassion in people affected by breast cancer. Altern.Ther Health Med. doi:AT7227 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:35648691

Khezri, E., Bagheri-Saveh, M. I., Kalhor, M. M., Rahnama, M., Roshani, D., & Salehi, K. (2022). Nursing care based on the Support-Based Spiritual Care Model increases hope among women with breast cancer in Iran. Support Care Cancer, 30(1), 423-429. doi:10.1007/s00520-021-06413-4 [doi];10.1007/s00520-021-06413-4 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:34302544

Leite, A., de Medeiros, A. G. A. P., Rolim, C., Pinheiro, K. S. C. B. , Beilfuss, M., Leão, M., et al. Hope theory and its relation to depression: A systematic review. Ann Psychiatr Clin Neurosci. 2019;2(2):1014.

Li, Y., Kong, X., Xuan, L., Wang, Z., & Huang, Y. H. (2021). Prolactin and endocrine therapy resistance in breast cancer: The next potential hope for breast cancer treatment. J Cell Mol.Med, 25(22), 10327-10348. doi:10.1111/jcmm.16946 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:34651424

Lotfi-Kashani, F., Fallahi, L., Akbari, M. E., Mansour-Moshtaghi, N., & Abdollahi, F. (2018). Effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on hopelessness among women with breast cancer and gynecological cancer. Int J Body Mind Culture, 5(1), 24-31.

Michalczyk, J., Dmochowska, J., Aftyka, A., & Milanowska, J. (2022). Post-traumatic growth in women with breast cancer: Intensity and predictors. Int J Environ.Res Public Health, 19(11). doi:ijerph19116509 [pii];10.3390/ijerph19116509 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:35682111

Mifsud, A., Pehlivan, M. J., Fam, P., O'Grady, M., van Steensel, A., Elder, E. et al. (2021). Feasibility and pilot study of a brief self-compassion intervention addressing body image distress in breast cancer survivors. Health Psychol Behav Med, 9(1), 498-526. doi:10.1080/21642850.2021.1929236 [doi];1929236 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:34104572

Neff, K. D. (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self-compassion. Self Identity, 2(3), 223–250.

Pahlevan, S. S., Lehto, R. H., Amiri, M., Ahadzadeh, A. S., Sharif, N. H., Haghdoost, A. A. et al. (2021). Spirituality and quality of life in women with breast cancer: The role of hope and educational attainment. Palliat.Support Care, 19(1), 55-61. doi:10.1017/S1478951520000383 [doi];S1478951520000383 [pii]. Retrieved from PM:32580795

Parambil, N. A., Philip, S., Tripathy, J. P., Philip, P. M., Duraisamy, K., & Balasubramanian, S. (2019). Community engaged breast cancer screening program in Kannur District, Kerala, India: A ray of hope for early diagnosis and treatment. Indian J Cancer, 56(3), 222-227. doi:IndianJournalofCancer_2019_56_3_222_263033 [pii];10.4103/ijc.IJC_397_18 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31389385

Porro, B., Broc, G., Baguet-Marin, F., & Cousson-Gelie, F. (2022). A questionable version of the Post-Traumatic growth inventory-Short form in women diagnosed with breast cancer. Br.J Health Psychol. doi:10.1111/bjhp.12604 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:35642098

Ruini, C., & Vescovelli, F. (2013). The role of gratitude in breast cancer: Its relationships with post-traumatic growth, psychological well-being and distress. J Happiness Stud, 14(1), 263-274.

Semenchuk, B. N., Kullman, S. M., Neilson, C. J., Ceccarelli, L., Boreskie, K., Kehler, D. S. et al. (2022). Self-compassion, health behaviors, self-regulation, and affective states among individuals at risk of or diagnosed with a chronic disease: A scoping review. Mindfulness, 13 (5), 1085-1111.

Shen, A., Qiang, W., Wang, Y., & Chen, Y. (2020). Quality of life among breast cancer survivors with triple negative breast cancer--role of hope, self-efficacy and social support. Eur J Oncol.Nurs., 46 , 101771. doi:S1462-3889(20)30051-X [pii];10.1016/j.ejon.2020.101771 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:32506010

Shi, G., Shi, T., Liu, Y., & Cai, Y. (2021). Relationships between dyadic coping, intimate relationship and post-traumatic growth in patients with breast cancer: A cross-sectional study. J Adv.Nurs., 77(12), 4733-4742. doi:10.1111/jan.14946 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:34227131

Snyder, C. R., Sympson, S. C., Ybasco, F. C., Borders, T. F., Babyak, M. A., & Higgins, R. L. (1996). Development and validation of the State Hope Scale. J Pers.Soc Psychol, 70(2), 321-335. doi:10.1037//0022-3514.70.2.321 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:863688

Soderberg-Naucler, C. (2022). New mechanistic insights of the pathogenicity of high-risk cytomegalovirus (CMV) strains derived from breast cancer: Hope for new cancer therapy options. EBioMedicine., 81 , 104103. doi:S2352-3964(22)00284-5 [pii];10.1016/j.ebiom.2022.104103 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:35709661

Stanton, A. L., Danoff-Burg, S., & Huggins, M. E. (2002). The first year after breast cancer diagnosis: hope and coping strategies as predictors of adjustment. Psychooncology., 11(2), 93-102. doi:10.1002/pon.574 [pii];10.1002/pon.574 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:11921325

Svetina, M., & Nastran, K. (2012). Family relationships and post-traumatic growth in breast cancer patients. Psychiatr.Danub., 24(3), 298-306. Retrieved from PM:23013636

Tedeschi, R. G., & Calhoun, L. G. (1996). The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory: Measuring the positive legacy of trauma. J Trauma Stress., 9(3), 455-471. doi:10.1007/BF02103658 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:8827649

Todorov, N., Sherman, K. A., & Kilby, C. J. (2019). Self-compassion and hope in the context of body image disturbance and distress in breast cancer survivors. Psychooncology., 28(10), 2025-2032. doi:10.1002/pon.5187 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:31369188

Vakili, Y., Ghanbari, N., Nooripour, R., Mansournia, M. A., Ilanloo, H., & Matacotta, J.J. (2022). Validity of the Snyder's Adult Hope Scale (AHS) among Iranian women with breast cancer. Arch Breast Cancer, 9(1), 96–103.

Zhai, J., Weller-Newton, J. M., Shimoinaba, K., Chen, H., & Copnell, B. (2021). Transforming their lives: post-traumatic growth experience in Chinese women with breast cancer-a grounded theory study. Health Care Women.Int, 1-15. doi:10.1080/07399332.2021.1959594 [doi]. Retrieved from PM:34534046

Downloads

Published

2022-07-19

How to Cite

Al-Zubaidi, S. H. ., Haider Jawad, A., Alfarras, A. F. ., Obaid, M. K. ., & Allamy, M. A. . (2022). The Efficacy of Positive Psychology on Hope, Self-Compassion, and Post-Traumatic Growth in Women with Breast Cancer. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture, 9(3), 197-206. Retrieved from https://ijbmc.org/index.php/ijbmc/article/view/413

Issue

Section

Quantitative Study(ies)

Most read articles by the same author(s)