The Prevalence and Determinants of Suicidal Behaviors in the Central Region of Iran
Background: Today, there are great concerns about the high frequency of suicidal attempts which are a major health problem. Identifying the prevalence of suicide and its predisposing elements could be helpful in preventing suicide.
Methods: This prospective study was conducted in an emergency ward of a local hospital in a small city in the central region of Iran. The study duration was one year from 8 April 2011 to 7 April 2012. We collected demographic, psychosocial, and suicide characteristics, and the time of referral of a total of 466 patients who had referred to the hospital due to suicidal attempts.
Results: The mean age of suicidal patients was 24.97 10.05 years. Participants who were between 15 and 24 years of age had the highest rate of suicide attempt regardless of age. The suicidal attempt rate during the study period was 300.1 and 153.5 per 100.000 in females and males, respectively. Most attempted suicide patients were single and undergraduated. Approximately 60.8% of male and 63.3% of female subjects had depression with different severity. We observed higher frequency of stressors in males compared to females (p = 0.007). Moreover, the main cause of suicide was relational problem in both genders. Suicidal thought was reported in about 41.5% of patients before attempting suicide. In 4.7%, 12.2%, and 12.9% of our study subjects a positive past history, plan for suicide, and family history of suicidal attempt were reported. Nearly 75.9% of suicidal attempts occurred between 1 pm to 12 am. The highest rate of suicidal attempts was observed in summer and the lowest rate in winter.
Conclusion: Given our findings regarding specified suicide determinants in the present study, we believe interventions need to target young age groups and focus on providing social support settings in places such as schools and referral centers with educated individuals on communication and problem solving skills.