Paradigmatic Crisis and Humsnistic Medicine


  • Farzad Goli Professor, Faculty Instructor, Energy Medicine University, California, USA AND Danesh-e Tandorosti Institute, Isfahan, Iran



The biomedical model had proved its effectiveness in treating acute diseases and has caused widespread developments in some fields such as genetics and macrobiotics. However, it has showed its shortcomings in treating chronic diseases and the psychocultural conditions affecting health. These have led to the arising of a paradigmatic crisis in all levels of biomedicine. At this point, a significant question arises: "Is it possible to incorporate all human dimensions in a medical model?" It seems as if biomedicine considered man as it-experience; that is, it had an objective, evident-based, and positivist view; while the I-experience -the phenomenological world of the patient- had no roles in disease prognosis, diagnosis, and treatment. Through the systemic model of medicine, the patient can become a major part of the therapeutic team, which, while he/she stands on one point of the health continuum at any given time, has crucial roles especially in chronic conditions and preventive care. Through such models, the patient-physician relationship transforms into an essential healing technology.


Bloom, S. L. (2000). Chaos, complexity, self-organization and us. Psychotherapy Review, 2(8), 1-5.

Capra, F. (2004). The hidden connections: A science for sustainable living. New York, NY: Anchor.

Conner, M., & Norman, P. (1996). Predicting health behaviour: Research and practice with social cognition models. Buckingham, England: Open University.

de Botton, A. (2001). The consolations of philosophy. New York, NY: Vintage Books.

Dreher, H. (2003). Mind-body unity: A new vision for mind-body science and medicine. London, UK: Johns Hopkins University.

Dreyfus, H. L., Rabinow, P., & Foucault, M. (1983). Michel Foucault: Beyond structuralism and hermeneutics .(2nd ed.). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Faass, N. (2001). Integrating complementary medicine into health systems. Gaithersburg, MD: Aspen.

Gadamer, H. G. (1996a). The enigma of health: The art of healing in a scientific Age. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Gadamer, H. G. (1996b). Hermeneutics and psychiatry. In H.G. Gadamer (Eds.), The enigma of health: The art of healing in a scientific age (pp. 163-174). Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.

Helman, C. (2000). Culture, health and illness. culture, health, and illness. Oxford, UK: Butterworth-Heinemann.

Hunke, S. (1960). Allahs Sonne über dem Abendland: Unser arabisches Erbe. Munich, Germany: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt.

Illich, I. (2000). Limits to medicine: Medical nemesis: The expropriation of health. New York, NY: Marion Boyars.

Jaynes, J. (2000). The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind. Boston, MA: Mariner books Houghton Mifflin.

Kim, U., & Berry, J. W. (1993). Indigenous psychologies: research and experience in cultural context. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kradin, R. (2008). The placebo response and the power of unconscious healing. New York, NY: Routledge.

Kuhn, T. S. (1996). The structure of scientific revolutions. Foundations of the unity of science. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.

Lakatos, I., & Musgrave, A. (1970). Criticism and the growth of knowledge. London, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Leddy, S. K. (2005). Integrative health promotion. Boston, MA: Jones and Bartlett.

Morin, E. (1991). Le Paradigme perdu. La nature humaine. Trans. Asadi, A. Tehran, Iran: Soroush.

Ogden, J. (2004). Health psychology: A textbook. New York, NY: Open University Press.

Popper, K. R. (2002). Conjectures and refutations: the growth of scientific knowledge. London, UK: Routledge.

Putnam, H., & Putnam, C. U. P. E. (2008). The collapse of the fact/value dichotomy and other essays. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Shawer, L. (1998). Note on the birth of the clinic. Available from: URL: ~rathbone/foucbc.htm. Accssed 1998.

Vedhara, K., & Irwin, M. R. (2006). Human psychoneuroimmunology. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

von Schlippe, A., Schweitzer, J., & Lizenzen, H. (2012). Lehrbuch der systemischen Therapie und Beratung I: Das Grundlagenwissen. Trans. Pirmoradi, S. Isfahan, Iran: Shonar.

Watson, J., Dossey, B. M., & Dossey, L. (1999). Postmodern nursing and beyond. London, UK: Churchill Livingstone.

Wilber, K. (2001). The marriage of sense and soul: Integrating science and religion. Boston, MA: Gateway.

Wulff, H. R., Pedersen, S. A., & Rosenberg, R. (1990). Philosophy of medicine: An introduction. (2nd ed.). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Scientific Publications.




How to Cite

Goli, F. (2018). Paradigmatic Crisis and Humsnistic Medicine. International Journal of Body, Mind and Culture, 5(1), 3-13.



Theoretical Study(ies)

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 3 4 > >>